The Butlerian Jihad or Great Revolt (200 BG - 108 BG) was a movement against the thinking machines. It started out of the Front for the End of Koman Exploitation led by Jehanne Butler, her husband Thet'r Butler and Urania.
The Jihad stroke first intestellar communications such as Centrans and then razed small governments planet by planet.
After Jehanne's death, she became a martyr, but her generals continued with more zeal. Jehanne knew her weaknesses and fears but her followers did not. The politics of Urania were favored.
Much of the Jihad forces on each assaulted planet, was apartized by mercenaries, hired of the most adventurous and dispossessed on the last conquered planet.
All thinking machines were destroyed by 108 BG excepting legendary Ibrahim Vaughn Holtzman (his brain transplanted into a space assembly) who appeared near Liesco II every 1862 years. Pilgrims had amassed in space around Liesco to witness the elimination of the final symbol of the old order of the machines (so many, that pilgrim ships collided between each other). The Jihad fleet did not try to communicate with Holtzman, but found him after 3 days. Viana Kellis won the lot to sacrifice herself killing him. She suited up and infiltrated his ship obviously triggering his device; and a mass-conversion reaction witnessed by the fleet, obviously destroyed them both.
Holtzman's last discoveries were never made known, and the destruction of the last "thinking machine" marked the end of the war
It was impossible to assess the billions of deaths due to starvation, diseases and other causes resulted from the destruction of thinking machines. Government, medicine, business and trade of the victim words who depended on them were gravely affected in the cohesion and organization of their social fabric. The only planets which escaped the destruction of their structure were few anarchical states without government.
The rise of military and economic entrepreneurs was inevitable; personal ties replaced the structure of a state (military, taxation, legal systems) and feudalism emerged. Kruwl Sheivvun years later noted that the collapse of interstellar commerce left space for the Spacing Guild to assemble, and for House Corrino to ascend to the Golden Lion Throne.
The absence of computer navigators made interstellar travel difficult, which made exiles of Komos look for how human mind can replace them, setting the stage of the Guild. Computers were later replaced by Mentats
- Dune Encyclopedia, entry BUTLER, BUTLERIAN JIHAD, HOLTZMAN